Humans: from the beginning
By Christopher Seddon
Every few months a discovery about the human past is announced that makes national or even international news. Humans: from the beginning will appeal to anybody who reads about these discoveries, is intrigued by them, and would like to know more about prehistory.
The end product of five years of research, Humans: from the beginning is a single-volume guide to the human past. Drawing upon expert literature and the latest multi-disciplinary research, this rigorous but accessible book traces the whole of the human story from the first apes to the first cities. The Kindle edition has been planned from the ground up to take advantage of the eBook format and ease access to visual matter, references and glossary items.
Humans: from the beginning is written for the non-specialist, but it is sufficiently comprehensive in scope, rigorous in content, and well-referenced to serve as an ideal ‘one-stop’ text not only for undergraduate students of relevant disciplines, but also to postgraduates, researchers and other academics seeking to broaden their knowledge.
This 32-chapter work presents an even-handed coverage of topics including:
- How climate change has long played a pivotal role in our affairs and those of our ancestors.
- How humans evolved from apes at a time when the apes were facing extinction.
- Why the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees (our closest living relatives) might have been more like a human than a chimpanzee.
- A possible Asian rather than African origin for the earliest humans.
- Why the Neanderthals were not the dimwits of popular imagination.
- How language and modern human behaviour evolved: an examination of theories including those of Robin Dunbar, Steven Mithen and Derek Bickerton.
- How the small group of modern humans that eventually colonised the whole of the non-African world might have started from Arabia rather than Africa.
- David Lewis-Williams’ theory that the cave art of Ice Age Europe was linked to a shamanistic belief system that might be rooted in the very architecture of the human brain.
- Why the Neolithic transition from hunter-gathering to agriculture was a lengthy process, with many down sides.
- Colin Renfrew’s still-controversial theory that the spread of farming communities in Neolithic times was responsible for the languages now spoken in many parts of the world.
- How an ‘Urban Revolution’ replaced egalitarian farming communities with socially-stratified kingdoms and city-states in just a few millennia.
- How the complex, technological societies of today have much in common with not only the earliest states but much earlier primate societies.
• Humans: from the beginning is available from Amazon in both paperback and Kindle formats.
Humans: from the beginning
A list of chapters with a brief summary of each:
|1||A very remote period indeed How the concept of ‘prehistory’ gradually replaced the view that God created the Earth in 4004 BC.|
|2||The rise and fall of the Planet of the Apes Early apes and the story of the so-called Missing Link.|
|3||Down from the trees Four legs good, two legs better.|
|4||The Southern Apes ‘Lucy’ and her cousins.|
|5||Becoming Human The appearance of the first human species, Homo habilis.|
|6||The first Diaspora – or was it? – Was Homo erectus really the first human species to leave Africa or did the so-called Hobbit people beat them to it?|
|7||The Archaics Who were the first large-brained humans and how ‘smart’ were they?|
|8||The Other People Our unfairly maligned cousins, the Neanderthals; and the enigmatic Denisovans.|
|9||Enter Homo sapiens Modern humans take centre stage.|
|10||The long African dawn For much of our career, our species did not leave Africa and faced drought, super-volcanoes and other perils.|
|11||The making of the modern mind A review of the many theories on how modern human behaviour emerged.|
|12||Going global A small group of modern humans leaves Africa to begin a journey that will eventually populate the rest of the world.|
|13||Two waves – two waves of modern human migrants reached the Far East; the first wave encountered Denisovans and possibly other archaic humans.|
|14||An inaccessible peninsula Art of astonishing refinement flourishes during the grim battle for survival in Ice Age Europe.|
|15||The final frontier The settling of the New World: were the Clovis people really the first Americans?|
|16||Humanity in the dock Who or what was responsible the mass extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene? Homo sapiens is prime suspect.|
|17||Feed the world As the ice melts, so a fundamentally new way of life emerges in many parts of the world.|
|18||Assembling the package Agriculture emerges in a piecemeal fashion in Southwest Asia, leading to the construction of the world’s first ‘temple’ at Göbekli Tepe and the huge beehive-like settlement of Çatalhöyük.|
|19||Waves and lurches Farmers encounter hunter-gatherers in Europe. Who came out on top?|
|20||Spreading the word Were the languages spoken by much of the world’s population spread by Neolithic farmers?|
|21||A continent divided Agriculture in Africa and the Bantu expansion.|
|22||Of rice and men The story of the world’s most successful grain crop.|
|23||Out of Taiwan The astonishing boat-borne migration of the Polynesians.|
|24||Limited options and tilted axes Why was agriculture such a late development in the New World?|
|25||The Urban Revolution States and cities – how taxation became as inevitable as death.|
|26||Early adopters in Mesopotamia and Egypt The rise of kings and pharaohs.|
|27||An enigmatic civilisation Largely unknown today, the Indus Valley hosted one of the world’s first state-level societies.|
|28||Interesting times Separating fact from legend in Predynastic and early Dynastic China.|
|29||Mexican superpowers Expansive states in Mesoamerica.|
|30||The Maya The ancient roots of the New World’s best-known civilisation.|
|31||Before the Inca Early civilisations of South America.|
|32||Humans: the future Will our technology make or break us as a species? Where do humans go from here?|
From ‘The other people’, a chapter in Humans: from the beginning
Please don’t call us football hooligans
Of all early humans, none have captured the public imagination to anywhere near the extent of the Neanderthals. Indeed, with the possible exception of the dinosaurs, no extinct species is so deeply rooted in our popular culture. The idea that tens of thousands of years ago, people very much like ourselves shared the planet with another human species is one that intrigues many. Although like ‘dinosaur’, the term ‘Neanderthal’ is all-too-often used in a pejorative sense, in literature Neanderthals have generally been portrayed in a sympathetic light, for example The Inheritors by William Golding; Jean M. Auel’s Clan of the Cave Bear series; and The Ugly Little Boy by Isaac Asimov. The Neanderthal Parallax is an award-winning trilogy by Canadian SF writer Robert Sawyer about a team of scientists who accidentally make contact with a parallel universe, in which Neanderthals rather than Homo sapiens became the dominant life form on Earth.
“Ironically, the literal meaning of Neanderthal is New Man’s Valley”
The term ‘Neanderthal’ comes from Neander Thal (Neander Valley), near Dusseldorf, Germany, where the type specimen Neanderthal 1 was discovered at Feldhofer Cave in 1856. The German spelling was changed to Neander Tal in 1901, hence the commonly-used variant spelling Neandertal. However, this usage is not acceptable for the scientific name Homo neanderthalensis, which was assigned before the change in spelling. Under rules of taxonomic nomenclature, once a name has been assigned, it cannot be changed. The Neander Valley is named for Joachim Neander, a 17th Century Calvinist theologian who is best known for composing the popular hymn Praise to the Lord, the Almighty. ‘Neander’ is a classicised form of the German surname Neumann (Newman in English). Ironically, therefore, the literal meaning of Neanderthal is New Man’s Valley.
Discovery and rediscovery
Though the first human fossil recognised as not representing a modern human, Neanderthal 1 was not actually the first discovery of a Neanderthal. Specimens had previously been recovered in Ennis Cave, Belgium between 1829 and 1830 and Forbes Cave, Gibraltar in 1848; but their significance was not immediately recognised.
The Feldhofer Cave discovery comprises a skullcap, two femurs, three bones from the right arm, two from the left arm, part of the left ilium (upper pelvic bone), fragments of a shoulder blade, and ribs. The cave was located in a limestone gorge and the remains were recovered by quarry workers in August 1856. As it would later turn out, they inadvertently discarded further remains and other items that could well have included tools, and there is almost no record of context and associations. The find was examined by a local schoolteacher and amateur naturalist, Johann Karl Fuhlrott, who noted that the remains were unlike those of modern humans. Fuhlrott passed the remains on to Hermann Schaaffhausen, Professor of Anatomy at the University of Bonn. The pair jointly announced the discovery in 1857. However, Schaaffhausen considered the Neanderthals to represent an ancient Northern European race predating the Germans and the Celts. That they might represent a new species of human was first suggested in 1864 by the Irish anatomist William King, who proposed the name Homo neanderthalensis. King’s suggestion was not widely accepted at first and, foreshadowing the debate over the Flores hominins almost a century and a half later, the Prussian pathologist Rudolf Virchow dismissed the Feldhofer remains as belonging to a modern human affected by disease.
“Schaaffhausen considered the Neanderthals to represent an ancient Northern European race predating the Germans and the Celts”
Archaeologists eventually did return to the quarry, only to find that the cave had been destroyed. The whole area had been excavated for its limestone, needed for the steel industry as the Industrial Revolution transformed Dusseldorf into a boom town. In the 1920s the area was turned into a park. The cave remained lost to science until 1997, when Ralf Schmitz and Jürgen Thissen from the Rhineland Archaeological Service relocated it with old maps and 19th Century paintings of the site. In the latter, Schmitz and Thissen recognized a rock that still stood in the Neander Park. They then dug exploratory trenches nearby, and on sifting through the debris they found bat teeth and pieces of stalactites – items that are only found in caves. Realising they had located the site of Feldhofer Cave, Schmitz and Thissen continued their investigations….